Culture & Lifestyle

Animal protein vs plant: what’s best for health?

But most adults can meet their protein needs fairly easily on a plant-based diet, she adds – you just might need bigger helpings.

“Animal foods are typically higher in protein relative to their kilojoule content, so you may need a larger portion of a plant food to get the same amount of protein as you would from an animal source,” she explains.

“Children can get enough protein from a plant-based diet too, but it needs careful planning to ensure there’s sufficient iron, B12 and calcium as well – if your child’s diet is vegan or mostly plant-based it’s a good idea to consult an accredited practising dietitian to make sure their diet is on the right track.”

“We’re seeing more athletes switch to a plant-based diet for different reasons, including health, sustainability and animal welfare.”

Bethanie Allanson, Sports Dietitians Australia

How much protein we eat matters too – and too much does us no favours, according to Ribeiro who says most people in Australia are meeting their protein needs – and many of us eat too much.

“Consuming a lot of protein forces your body to work faster to process it and the faster your body works, the more likely it is to make a mistake, raising the risk of diseases including cancer,” she says. “It’s also about what the protein comes with – if it comes with high levels of saturated fat, as in fatty cuts of meat, it can increase the risk of heart disease.

“This may explain why observational studies of long-lived people have linked traditional diets low in protein and high in carbohydrates to longer lifespans,” she says. “But we can reduce the amount of protein in our diet by replacing some animal sources with plant sources of protein because plant sources naturally contain less protein per gram. ”

Yet it’s also true that a higher protein intake benefits older people to help offset age-related muscle loss, adds Ribeiro whose research focuses on nutrition and longevity. The recommended protein intake for adults is around 0.8g per kilo of bodyweight and rises to 1g per kilo for over 70s.

“Some researchers suggest that for longevity we need low protein, high carbohydrate diets as younger adults – but switch to a higher protein intake as we get older. But we need more research to be sure. ”

Can plant protein do a decent job of building muscle for athletes?

“We’re seeing more athletes switch to a plant-based diet for different reasons, including health, sustainability and animal welfare,” says sports dietitian Bethanie Allanson of Sports Dietitians Australia. “I work with the West Australian Cricket Team, for example, and some of their players have changed to a plant-based diet. Research shows that for endurance and strength, including powerlifting, a well-managed plant-based diet doesn’t hinder performance, although it doesn’t enhance it.

“It just takes more effort to ensure you get all the essential amino acids and nutrients you need. Some athletes use protein supplements but it’s mainly for convenience when they’re travelling, for example.”

Still, when it comes to buying plant-based meats and products like plant-based burgers, check the label first, says Swaney.

“They’re often highly processed and high in sodium – if you want to include them, choose products that are lower in sodium and with a high content of whole foods like legumes, wholegrains, nuts and seeds.”

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